Correspondences with Richard E. Byrd

Educational Research Laboratories
Founder and Director:
Joseph Sadony
Valley of the Pines
Montague, Michigan
U. S. A.

March 25, 1948

Admiral Richard E. Byrd
#9 Brimmer Street
Boston, Mass.

Dear Friend,

Just a few lines to say that I enjoyed our short visit immensely. It surely feels fine to exchange views with someone who understands one's language. I fear I may have appeared a bit too enthusiastic, but at our age one must say the things one knows to be true, even if from a different viewpoint, as 3 and 1, or 2 and 2 to make 4.

I am sending you a little book telling part of my story, "Gates of the Mind", and after reading it you may the better judge whether our friendship can ripen to its maturity. In my position no one need be under obligation. I offer nothing but what I have found acceptable and self-evident; and no one can pay me for it. I have no debts, but friends throughout forty countries. And when I go a long distance to meet a man and shake his hand, he is a real man. Thus I found you. So if you feel a mutual understanding, so more it be.

When you have rested, and feel in the mood, I trust you will drop me a few lines. What I have discovered, I will gladly share with you.

With kindest thoughts and respect,
Your new friends,

Joseph (signed)

And family.


March 31, 1948

Mr. Joseph Sadony
Educational Research Laboratories
Montague, Michigan

Dear Friend,

I am just in my office for a few minutes today, so you will have to forgive this hasty letter. I want to thank you for the photograph you sent me. I an very glad to get it, especially since I told my family about you and how pleasant it was to meet you. Now I can show them what a fine-looking man you are.

The book has not arrived. I shall read it with much interest when it does.

With all good wishes to you and your family, I am

Most sincerely yours,


April 6, 1948

Mr. Joseph Sadony
Educational Research Laboratories
Montague, Michigan

Dear Friend:

Your Lightning Flashes are splendid.
Thank you a thousand time for sending
them to me.

Excuse this hasty letter.

With kindest regards,

Most cordially,


Educational Research Laboratories
Founder and Director:
Joseph Sadony
Montague, Michigan
U. S. A.

April 10, 1948

Admiral Richard E. Byrd
#9 Brimmer Street
Boston, Mass.

Dear Friend,

Just a confidential little visit before I hit the hay, 4:30 A.M. I just finished going over a few thousand of my geological and nature specimen, a general "house-cleaning" and Placing many of them in new cases

Yesterday I received your letter which indicated that you had received my little book, "enLIGHT'NING FLASHes". But did you receive my "Gates of the Mind" also? It was sent you in the same mail. I will send another if you did not receive this.

You know, dear friend, there if some real satisfaction to find that there are still a few real men living who know, and know that they know what they express. Back in 1893 I met Paul Du Chaillu, the African explorer who discovered the Pygmies. I was convinced of his sincerity and the truth of what he told me, though others at that time still doubted it. From that day to this I have always been greatly interested in all men who have done and do things worthwhile. I have valued their friendship and with them I have shared my own discoveries. This extends into the fields of many vocations besides research and exploration, Ossip Gabrillowitsch (Director of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra) and his wife, Clara Clemens, (Mark Twain's daughter) visited me often, and Ossip died with a sprig of evergreen from my last letter on his pillow There he could inhale its fragrance. No doubt you will have known many of these friends which included Theodore Roosevelt, ex-Governor Chase Osborn of Michigan (who writes me still, once per month, also a real explorer) and the late Lt. Gov. John Evans who lived for twenty years among the Head Hunters of the Philippines; and his brother Glen Evans who was with the U.S. Narcotic Squad in China. One week-end when they visited me together we talked for 16 hours without interruption except to eat and otherwise obey nature. I think that is one session you would have enjoyed; for John (Abba Evans, as the natives called him), had but part of one lung left and this was his unburdening. He told everything that he would not have told, under any other condition. He asked me to check on the truthfulness of his statements with Gen. John Pershing. This I did when the opportunity presented itself in my occasional correspondence with Pershing. Shortly after that John Evans passed away.

For years I have corresponded too with Dr. Sven Hedin, the Swedish explorer. And the archaeologist, Count Nile Crisander visited me as a culmination to a strange story too long to tell you here.

And here is another wonderful, too conscientious he-man, Richard E. Byrd, who should be more selfish in order to acquire more under the law of compensation. You know this. Still see the envious and criticial hypocrites who would rob you of what is rightfully yours. I noticed this when you were giving your fine, interesting lecture. Who really and fully appreciated your experience, your hardships, your efforts? Well, dear friend, I did. I lived it with you. So it was not lost, after all. God surely was with you, to survive all those days of struggle. Yes, they will say, "Well, he was safe in a plane, men at his call" etc. Well, why did not some other wise guy do what you did?

I hope, dear friend, that you will forgive me if I seem too enthusiastic in my expression. But I mean it because I know the feeling. I too suffered a little in my experience. 1800 miles on foot across the Majave desert was no fun, losing 43 pounds. And riding a bicycle to Denver, to New Orleans and to New York alone, for the experience; also climbing over most of the mountains in Southern California.

So I do appreciate what you have done, and I will defend you against any poor cheapskate who tries to belittle you as some have tried to do because I praised your work. Why hide facts under a bushel basket, even if you yourself assume that it was not much to do what you did. I have a right to express my concept of any man who has done something great for history and education, even if they did but press a button. But who in hell knows when to press that button?

Well, that's just how I feel; and with a clear conscience; no flattery, no axe to grind. I believe in passing the bread and butter to a living man instead of contributing to a fund for his tombstone.

I only hope, dear friend, that you will take a little more care of your own interests and health, so you may be a living example of what real men have and can do. Each man has a right to his opinion; and the above is mine. One thing, I am able to defend and back up my opinion. I have never been afraid of any man, with bull-con or gun. So do accept the tribute where others have failed to do so.

There is much I would like to share with you along the line of intuitive facts. If interested, after reading "Gates the Mind", let me know. Or test me out along those lines. We need men today who know what they are talking about, because experience is the only knowledge that substantiates facts, and not theories or assumption.

I hope you may some day visit us and see for your-self what the world doesn't know (nor will it if I can help it). I don't want publicity; only real loyal friends whom I can help find what I have found: health, happiness, long life. And I am not lost. I have all I want, and a lot to give away.

So now I must get some sleep, for I have another job tomorrow, making new apparatus in connection with a research project of many years, not yet made public, and in the results of which you might be interested, since it concerns the experimental and observational evidence of a small daily as well as annual migration of the poles. I have now reason to believe that a small apparent variation in gravity at one place (which far exceeds in its 24 hour effect any theoretical solar influence) is a real variation for which I have found a very satisfactory explanation which leads to correct astronomical as well as electronic and atomic calculations. More of this if you are interested. I have charts, data and instruments that I am sure would interest you next time you are near enough to visit me.

For now, Good Night, and may God keep you and your loved ones.

Sincerely and affectionately your friends,

Joseph (signed)

And family.


Educational Research Laboratories
Founder and Director:
Joseph Sadony
Valley of the Pines
Montague, Michigan
U. S. A.

May 8, 1948

Admiral Richard E. Byrd
#9 Brimmer Street
Boston, Mass.

Dear Friend,

Pardon this intrusion into your environments, but I just could not resist the urge. Please do not consider it necessary to reply in your busy routine. But don't you often find yourself quite alone amongst the crowd of idle thinkers? Just as I some times feel crowded in my little Valley with only two or three guests (such as you are often forced to entertain). And if like begets like, you and I must be a little different from most men.

Another little matter. I wish you would not consider age or years gone by. Again like the lone wolf or faithful watch dog. If you have traveled a great distance in life, do you see men, tents, dance halls before you, or virgin pines, nature's paths uncrossed by man? Well, it's not isolation or a state of being deserted, but progress you have made; lonely perhaps, but evolutionary progress that only a real he-man can sense. A flag has only the value a nation places upon it. So why not appraise efforts made, and not accept the shallow opinion and criticism of the-masses (or them-asses) so ready to condemn or "double-cross" one who made them. You know the kind. So do 1* But the very few real friends make up for those who don't know loyalty or gratitude.

One is no older than he allows himself to feel. And darn it, you feel o.k. Or let's put it this way. Two mind-readers meet on the street and one says to the other, "Well, friend, you're feeling fine. How am I?" And so, dear friend, it is with us both. I see your fine qualities, your greatest achievements yet to come, and plenty of time to choose your own monument before you go on the greatest Exploration trip of Life. "Ditto". So what? Blessed is he who understands, and still is silent.

Well, at any rate I feel better now, thank you.

With love from us all to you and your family,

Affectionately,

Joseph (signed)


Educational Research Laboratories
Founder and Director:
Joseph Sadony
Valley of the Pines
Montague, Michigan
U. S. A.

July 12, 1948

Adm. Richard E. Byrd
#9 Brimmer Street
Boston, Mass.

Dear Friend,

There are one or two points in the enclosed that might interest you; one of them being our investigation of non-magnetic components in the behavior of magnetic instruments. The behavior of a "torsionless" balance is also interesting in case you have never experimented along that line. It is as near "perpetual motion" as we shall ever come, no doubt; and it would have been interesting to know how such an instrument would have behaved at Antarctica, if you had had one, I have two "torsionless" balances that I constructed, which have been rotating counterclockwise (here at Lat. 43 degrees) at the rate of 180 degrees per week, 360 degrees every fourteen days ever since constructed three months ago. There is a description in the enclosed. I thought it might interest you.

With our very best to you, as always,

Sincerely,

Joseph (signed)


July 15, 1948.

Mr. Joseph Sadony,
Educational Research Laboratories,
Montague, Michigan.

Dear Mr. Sadony:-

Your paper on the Laws of Motion arrived just as I am about to leave Boston.

So I am writing a very hasty note to thank you most sincerely. I will study this paper at the first opportunity upon my return.

If you will send me one of your "torsionless" balances I will take it down with me to the Antarctic next Fall.

With kindest regards,

Sincerely,


Educational Research Laboratories
Founder and Director
Joseph Sadony
Valley of the Pines
Montague, Michigan
U. S. A.

July 18, 1948

Adm. Richard E. Byrd
#9 Brimmer Street
Boston, Mass.

Dear Friend,

I have your letter in which you say that if I will send you one of the "torsionless" balances you will take it to the Antarctic with you this fall. I will be only too glad to make one up especially for the purpose, so kindly have me posted as to schedule, time of leaving, and so on. What will be the temperature range of its probable environments? I am presuming it will be observed in a heated building. At present I am making further tests of various "torsionless" fibres with this in mind. You see, the whole story was not told in the report you received, but full details will provided for you in connection with the instrument. The forces it is designed to reveal are very feeble, between magnitude 10-8 and 10-11. For this reason I have been using extruded thermoplastic fibres which are free from "twist" but not free of "torsion", The objective is to reduce the torsion of the fibre to a minimum, and by the use of thermoplastic materials to provide a certain amount of "yielding" to the torsion developed in the behavior of the instrument. Observation of this instrument in the Antarctic should certainly provide valuable data, which should determine to what extent the rotation of the earth is involved in its behavior as compared with the motions of translation in the solar and lunar fields. For obviously at higher latitudes the amount of relative motion due to the rotation of the earth is less, whereas the motions of translation will be nearly the same. If the instrument is less active in the Antarctic than it is in middle latitudes (here at 43 degrees, for example), this point might be determined.

I regret that you have not personally seen the source of my activities here. If you have any trusted friend near us, send him to me to show him the background to report to you. For I am only too glad to assist you in your research work. I made this very plain to some of these hypocritical cheap-skates when they tried to belittle your efforts, and have succeeded in causing a change of mind in a few on that score.

If you go to the Antarctic again I am only hoping and praying you will take no undue risk, because you still have the biggest thing coming to you as a climax. That is my viewpoint. For who and what prompted you to do what you did, and live to tell it?

Just the same, if you go I will keep in close touch with you.

So now take care of your health for the sake of those friends who do love you.

With affectionate regards from us all,

Sincerely,

Joseph (signed)

P.S.

Once again regarding the instrument, it is important to know whether or not it will be protected from extremely low temperatures, since of course a thermoplastic fibre such as nylon would become brittle at low temperatures. Have you other instruments that will be kept in heated quarters?


February 9, 1949

Mr. Joseph A Sadony
Valley of the Pines
Montague, Michigan

My dear friend:

I want to thank you most sincerely for the paper you sent me, The Valley of Caravel. It is a remarkable document. I have not had a chance to read it all yet, but I shall to do in a few days.

The reason that I have not answered you sooner is that I have been away from my desk. excuse this rather hasty note but many urgent matters accumulated during my absence.

With warm regards,

Faithfully,


Joseph A. Sabony
Valley of the Pines
Montague, Michigan

February 14, 1949

Adm. Richard E. Byrd
#9 Brimmer Street
Boston, Mass.

Dear Friend Richard,

May I remove the wall of formality, where sincerity can be absolute, where life is so short and eternity so long? There are so few men who really understand the language without words but with symbols of reality. It is true, we are forced to use words invented by those who thought they knew their meaning. But tell me, dear friend, did they? I know you will understand. That suffices.

I was very glad to hear from you that you liked The Valley Caravel. I have put your name on the mailing list with my compliments. The second issue goes forth to you today.

You know I have been somewhat apprehensive as to your assumed responsibility. I was in hopes that you would be extremely selfish as to the wants you are entitled to without having to go through the physical exertions you have in the past. We need you more as a. consultant than a man seeking for a gold mine yet dare not take one nugget out of it when he finds it.

I would so like to exchange views with you, which would enable me to reveal some of my strange mental discoveries. When some of the leading surgeons and psychiatrists of Michigan beg to hear these things there must be something to it. Three of them are guests down in out sitting room at this very moment. And when I think of my files with witnessed records of thirty thousand predictions from five minutes to forty years in advance, I wonder if it was ail worthwhile. At least I will leave the records after my passing, and let them find it out as I aid, if they can spare the struggle of half a century with no compensation but the truth alone. You've had your struggle which also was unappreciated by the multitude, but appreciated intensely by your friends. At least these are my sentiments. I'm wishing you better health and longer life.

Let's not deceive ourselves us to the years we have lived, but accept the inevitable and help the Lord answer the call of "Give us this day our daily bread".

So with kindest thoughts and affection.

Sincerely,
Your friend,

Joseph (signed)


February 17, 1949

Joseph A. Sadony
Valley of the Pines
Montague , Michigan

Dear Friend:-

I am greatly impressed with discoveries in the realm of mind. When I come out West I would like to spend some time with you to learn more about your accomplishments and to attempt to discover something about how you get your wonderful results.

As usual I am writing a hasty letter. My desk is still piled up with work.

With congratulations for all the splendid things you have done and with warmest regards,

Your friend,


Joseph A. Sadony
Valley of the Pines
Montague , Michigan
April 13, 1949

Admiral Richard E. Byrd
9 Brimmer Street
Boston, Mass.

Dear friend,

I was happy to receive your letter of February 17th in which you say that when you come out West you would like to spend some time with me to learn more about ray accomplishments and how I get my results.

Should you still feel in that spirit as you travel West, do stop over1 and let me share with you what I nave to offer including discoveries in the realm of mind.

Jack Bursey said that any time you are near he will drive you up here. Wo know too, dear friend, that no man in the world would be more welcome than you.

With kindest thoughts of affection from us all,

Most sincerely,

Joseph (signed)


Educational Research Laboratories
Founder and Director:
Joseph Sadony
Montague, Michigan
U. S. A.

Valley of the Pines
October 19, 1953

Adm. Richard E. Byrd
9 Brimmer Street
Boston, Mass.

Dear Friend,

Not having heard from you or communicated with you in so long, I simply got a little "homesick" just to know how you are. And then when I turned and tuned my mind to your direction, I felt a little apprehension as to some of your intentions in the near future. For I realize how strong your will is, compared to your physical body.

You know, of course, that it is really the brain that counts; and that a toy in a wagon can drive a couple of mules that can pull tons beyond his own capacity, and are satisfied with a bundle of hay and a peck of oats in return for it. Still, judging by my own experience, the man with the vision does not always apply that; he feels called upon to go ahead and do much more than he ought to do himself,

If I didn't realize, dear friend, how important and how valuable you are in the conception of men in the public, it would not stir me up as it does. But you know, after a man has answered almost three hundred thousand letters solving problems, preventing murders and suicides, he must have some understanding of right and wrong and human nature; and especially, as in my case, if he has not commercialized his ability. In fifty years I have not charged one penny for my services as a counsellor of men.

But I think you understand all this, and comprehend the compulsion I feel to inform you of my thoughts. They started off something like this: I hope that Admiral Byrd will be selfish as hell against the foreflushers who assume for themselves. You see, I am aware of those who envy you for what you have done. And I have sort of worried that you might take up another expedition and assume the strenuous responsibility of jackasses who can do the work but don't know where to go without the driver; and that driver is one of the greatest men living today. If only officials could read your past experience and viewpoint, and carry it out, what a revelation it would be. And under the law of compensation I feel justified in writing you this letter . You know you have not really had a square deal from certain ones, and I am just longing to have these things revealed, before you feel that you cannot do any forced hard labor as in the past.

I have found it true that "thoughts are things", and what we think, so shall we be. I have tested this even with some poor men who were helpless and hopeless, and. with those whom psychiatrists were ready to commit to an institution. A few hours were sufficient to change the whole picture. The patient became wiser than the psychiatrist, in one case on my record, and is now holding a good position while the psychiatrist has become mentally unbalanced and the decision must be made after tests whether he should not be confined to an institution, I first suspected this when I tested both the psychiatrist and his patient, without their realizing it. I showed them a collection of optical illusions and was surprised to find the greater mental flexibility and balance in the patient. The psychiatrist was not prepared for such a test, as it is just a little experiment I originated myself as a diagnostic implement, and not made public.

But enough, dear friend; I must not take up your time in discourse. I will never forget the pleasure that was ; mine when you and I had lunch together at Grand Rapids. The inspiration and honor I shall never forget. And that is why I try to express my opinion from my viewpoint. For I expect the greatest achievements still to come; and 1954 is the year, I will remind you of it later on, to prove that coming events do cast their shadows before. But I called it "Intuition", the same thing that saved your life more than once.

At any rate, I feel better now, thanks to you. I do not expect you to answer this letter, for it is but a little visit from one who understands that you have more important things to carry on. So conserve all your energy for them.

With love to you and yours from us all, in His name,

Affectionately your friend,

Joseph (signed)


Joseph A. Sadony
Valley of the Pines
Montague, Michigan

April 10, 1954

Admiral Richard E. Byrd
#9 Brimmer street
Boston, Mass.

Dear Friend,

There are a number of reasons why I have been thinking of you; hence these few lines. I have just received a long letter from Lcdr. Jack Bursey, from the U.S.A.C.G. Cutter, "Northwind", returning from an interesting arctic voyage, but not half so interesting as the Antarctic trips with you. Jack leaves the service, in May I believe, and will start a little store near here, by the help of his wife. I shall do all I can to help him make good.

But what has caused my mind to dwell with you for many an hour is the fact that for the last few months, after midnight, I have been going through a few hundred National Geographic Magazines, extending back through the years, and pausing to read every article written by you or about your work, or the spheres of your interests. And I found it interesting far beyond expression.

So then I began to meditate on your next few years, wishing you would capitalize your past experience, under the law of compensation, giving you all that is due you. I have been in contact with many leaders of the world, as you may know, and you might be surprised to realize how highly they regard you, and what you have done. Why not enjoy what is yours, and just take it easy, enjoying life as you long to do. I am well aware of the struggle and difficulties too, dear friend; and I still cannot grasp how you have endured what you have, and still are with us. But I am mighty happy that it is so. I hope, however, that you are selfish enough to get out of your remaining life the very best to make you happy. Forgive my concept of sentiment, but you deserve all that may be offered you,

With love from everyone in our Valley,

Most sincerely,
Your friend,

Joseph (signed)


April 17, 1954.

Mr. Joseph A. Sadony,
Valley of the Pines,
Montague, Michigan.

Dear Mr. Sadony:-

I thank you very much for your letter. How in the world did you know that I have been overworking for so long and that I really need a rest as well as more assistance to carry on my activities in behalf of national unity, etc.

I am, as a matter of fact, attempting to get more help; and also I am resigning from a few things, so that I won't have continually to overwork. It is getting me down.

I note with great interest your Progress Report on "The Astronomical Validation of the Correlation Between Electromagnetism and Gravitation".

My congratulations for all the wonderful things you are doing.

With kindest regards,

Most sincerely,


Educational Research Laboratories
Valley of the Pines
Montague, Michigan.

Dear Admiral Byrd,

We are sending you attached the summary of a progress report: Concerning the Astronomical Validation of the Correlation Between Electromagnetism and Gravitation.

If we are correct in our assumption that this will interest you, and if you wish your name to be included on the limited list of those who are invited to examine and to evaluate this privately issued preview, you need but sign and checkmark the card which is enclosed for your convenience and for our records.

There is no obligation involved in this, now or upon receipt of the report itself. The Educational Research Laboratories constitute a private, non-commercial foundation engaged in pure research.

In our final revisions, however, we do wish to take advantage of any criticisms or suggestions advanced by recipients of this initial published report. Therefore we seek, and will appreciate any comments, pro or con, which you may see fit to make.

Should subsequent improvements, new developments or the evaluational response of the selected recipients warrant major revisions, it is possible that the advance copies might be recalled for reissuance. Otherwise you w|ll be kept up-to-date by means of further reports, appendices or addendae.

We will be pleased to provide additional copies of the summary, or to receive your recommendation of qualified individuals who should be invited to examine the report itself, and who might be persuaded to grant us the advantage of their evaluation.

A copy of the report is on file with the Department of Defense and the Atomic Energy Commission.

Sincerely,

Joseph (signed)

Joseph Sadony, Founder and Director
Educational Research Laboratories.


A PROGRESS REPORT

Concerning

THE ASTRONOMICAL VALIDATION OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION

Developed and prepared by Meredith Beyers

Originator of Concept:

Joseph A. Sadony
Founder and Director
Educational Research Laboratories
Valley of the Pines
Montague, Michigan


CONCERNING THE ASTRONOMICAL VALIDATION OF A THEORETICAL CORRELATION BETWEEN ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION

Including an Astronomical Gravitational Determination of the Electromagnetic ratio, e/m, and its application to the problem of astronomical time.

From a Progress Report prepared under the direction of Joseph Sadony, founder and director, Educational Research Laboratories Valley of the Pines, Montague, Michigan.

Privately issued for limited prepublication distribution

Copyright, 1953 By Joseph Sadony

Mr. Sadony is the originator of the particular Quantum Theory of Correlativity which has made possible the gravitational determination of the fundamental electromagnetic quantities. The astronomical consequences are here, in part, subjected to mathematical-observational validation. The mathematical investigation and applications were made by Meredith Beyers, assistant to Joseph Sadony and one-time student of the late Prof. John L. Hayford, instructor in Geodetic Astronomy and former Inspector of Geodetic Work, and Chief of the Computing Division, U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey.

Both the experimental and mathematical investigations of this and other projects have been sponsored as well as directed by Joseph Sadony since 1923. The Educational Research Laboratories constitute a private, non-commercial foundation engaged in pure research for which no endowment has thus far been solicited or accepted.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

With the exception of quantitative data available in general books of reference, the astronomical information utilized in this report is accredited to the sources thus indicated:

"Earth, Moon and Planets", by Fred L. Whipple;
"Between the Planets", by Fletcher G. Watson;
"Our Sun", by Donald H. Menzel

These volumes from THE HARVARD BOOKS ON ASTRONOMY (Edited by Harlow Shapley and Bart J. Bok) are listed, with their respective publishers, in the bibliography on page 51 of the report.

We wish to acknowledge the cooperation of those without whose continued personal assistance through many years the research behind this report would not have been possible, These include Joseph A. Sadony Jr., Arthur J. Sadony, Lillian Sadony, Pearl Smith and Edith Smith, all of the Valley of the Pines; and Karl Johnson, of Chicago.

For invaluable assistance in the preparation, reproduction and disposition of the report series beginning with this Progress Report, we wish to acknowledge and to anticipate with gratitude the present and continuing cooperation of Erwin Ehrenschwender, Joseph J. Mitchell and John J. Rouser of Detroit; and of Gladys Shaw Erskine and Ivan Firth, of New York.

We wish also to thank Constant Cavallo and Ann Gillahan for the preparation of all reproduction masters from which this report was printed. the cover design and symbolism was conceived by Joseph J. Mitchell.

Valley of the Pines February, 1954
Educational Research Laboratories

Joseph Sadony, Founder and Director.
Meredith Beyers, Director Physical Research
William J. Percy, Executive Secretary


SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS

To suit the convenience of the type-face employed in this report, small capital letters are used to represent lower case letters in their mathematical meaning.

Thus, e/m represents the specific electronic charge, whereas e/m = c2: i.e., the total specific of nuclear energy.

"h" represents the planck constant where H represents the atomic weight of hydrogen.

"k" represents the gravitational ratio, GR2/M, where K is used to represent numerical constants of a mathematical formula.


CONCERNING THE ASTRONOMICAL VALIDATION OF A THEORETICAL CORRELATION BETWEEN ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION

CONTENTS

PURPOSE

Background

Origin of the Postulated "EMG" Correlation

The Need for Astronomical Validation

The Basis of the Astronomical Validation

Limitations of the astronomical Validation

The Basis of the "EMG" Formula

The Derivation of the "EMG" Formula

Determinations of "e/m"

"e/m" as determined by Mars

Transpositions of the "EMG" Formula

Applications to Mercury, Venus, Moon, Earth

Mars, Jupiter

The "Gaseous" Planets

Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

The "Limiting Equations" and their implications

In the case of the Moon, Mercury, Venus

The gravitational constant, "k", and the Problem of Mass and Density

Density of the Asteroids

The case of Eros

Density of Earth, Moon and Mercury

The Rotation Problem of Mercury and Venus (The "Limiting Equations" and their implications)

The Electromagnetic Interpretation of the Gravitational "k" as a Function of Rotational Energy

Comparison of Electromagnetic and Classical

Determinations of "Mass" and Density"

The "EMG" Density Curve

The Sun and Stars

The "Limiting Equations" and their implications

The "Mass Limits" and "Critical Densities

The Universal Law which links the Atom with the Stars

APPENDIX

The Problem of the Asteroids

The Variable Asteroids

Eros - The Trojan Asteroids - Hidalgo

Variable Asteroids and the Interpretation of the "EMG" Formulae

Ingredients of the "EMG" Formula

The Semantic Incompatibility of Classical

Gravitational and Electromagnetic Concepts

Gravitation, Electrostatics and Electromagnetism -- A single identity masquerading under three different names

The Problem of Astronomical Time

Mathematical Appendix I

Terrestrial astronomical gravitational
determination of "e/m"

Mathematical appendix II

Validational Application of "EMG" Formula to Mars

Conclusion

Bibliography

ADDENDUM

Terrestrial values of fundamental constants and ratios, as determined by application of "EMG" formulae

Stellar consequence of "EMG" validation predicts "red shift" in spectroscopic observation of stellar galaxies not due to doppler effect


CONCERNING THE ASTRONOMICAL VALIDATION OF A THEORETICAL CORRELATION BETWEEN ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION

Summary: Suspecting the variation with gravity of some of the fundamental constants and ratios of the physical sciences, an investigation was made of the possibility of a dynamic correlation between gravitation and electromagnetism at the nuclear level. This was done by means of electronic and magnetic observations and experiments at the geophysical level.

The results tended to confirm but failed to prove the suspected correlation (of reciprocal inertial dependence) because of insufficiently wide variations of "g" and the complexity of considerations which made alternative explanations possible in accounting for confirmative observational data.

Astronomical validation thus became imperative before undertaking the effort or the expense of further terrestrial validation and subsequent search for theoretical or practical consequences and applications at the nuclear, electronic or industrial levels. The applications of nuclear research being highly classified, it was further decided that the initial validation of the "EMG" (Electromagnetic-Gravitational) correlation should be confined to the astronomical level.

To this end, the "EMG" formula was developed, in which the specific electronic charge, e/m*, and the velocity of light, "G", are correlated with the angular velocity of axial rotation, the translational velocity of orbital revolution; and the equatorial surface gravitational field intensity of a planetary body. the formula was derived by combining two fundamental equations of a "Quantum Theory of Correlativity" in which the dynamic behavior of nuclear particles is correlated with the dynamic behavior of astronomical mass.


* Note: to suit the convenience of the type-face employed in this report, small capital letters are used to represent lower-case letters in their mathematical meaning. thus the electromagnetic ratio, e/m, represents the specific electronic charge, whereas e/m = c2: i. e., the total specific of nuclear energy, "h" represents the planck constant where "H" represents the atomic weight of Hydrogen. "k" represents the gravitational ratio, GR2/M, where "K" is used to represent the numerical constants of a mathematical formula.

The resulting basic "EMG" astronomical formula is e/m = (1/2) KRT.sin2x.cos x = constant

where K is a field constant for the host, "R" defines the orbit of a satellite of which "T" is the period of axial rotation with respect to the host: and "sin2x.cos x" defines the numerical limits (between 0 and 0.3849) of a critical ratio which may be quantitatively determined, but of which the meaning appears, to offer possibilities for alternative interpretations that are still under investigation. For this reason the validation of the basic formula is offered in a progress report, advanced tentatively, in hopes of acquiring the combined views of authorities in various. Special branches of science before the preparation of a more conclusive and revised presentation of the alternative interpretation which is favored by the majority of those: qualified to interpret or contribute to the evidence.

For example, if we accept the universal constancy of the specific electronic charge, e/m, (as the writers have done in this report), then we cannot, in the "EMG" formulations, accept also the universal constancy of the specific gravitational "charge" of astronomical mass. In the newtonian expression, G = kM/R2, we must either abandon our conception of astronomical mass, M, as "quantity of matter", and of its associated density as "concentration of matter", or we must concede the possibility that the gravitational "constant", k, has a different value for each astronomical body as a function of its rotational energy in the gravitational or static fields of other bodies. The consequences of this are examined in the report, especially as applied to the problem of astronomical "mass" and "density".

The calculations of the "EMG" formula as applied to the solar system, however, are not affected by our choice of alternative, since all we know astronomically is the ratio of one "kM" to another "kM". This is sufficient for the purposes of gravitational astronomy, and for the determination of "g" which is a function of "sin x" in the "EMG" formula.

The validational value of the "EMG" formula lies in the fact that unless the implied correlation were a fact in nature, and the specific electronic charge, e/m , a universal constant, the otherwise irrelevant functions and variations of value associated with gravitational astronomy could not possibly approximate an acceptable value for "e/m" when applied both to the earth and to mars, (whose periods of axial rotation are known to a validational degree of accuracy). For the surface "G" of the former is nearly three times that of the latter, and every other function of their dynamic behavior and position in the solar field has a different value.

Yet the gravitational determination of e/m as derived from the dynamic behavior of the astronomical mass of the earth in the solar field, and as supported by that of mars in applications of the "EMG" formula, is in substantial agreement with the best of recent laboratory determinations which range from 1.75827 to 1.76111 x 107 e.m.u. The Earth-Mars astronomical gravitational determination of e/m gives a value of 1.76019 x 107 e.m.u. When based on the latest and best determination of the astronomical unit (93,005 million miles), with 2.99776 x 1010 cm/sec. For the speed of light and 978.049 gal. as the terrestrial base of the International Formula for Gravity.

With this indication of the universal constancy of the nuclear specific electronic charge, and failing to find any validational evidence whatsoever in support of the assumption of the universal constancy of the specific astronomical gravitational "charge", k, an investigation was made of the nuclear, terrestrial and astronomic consequences of accepting this choice of alternative assumptions.

The nuclear and stellar consequences are that if e/m is constant, then both "e" and "m" vary with "G" , so that the specific charge of the proton and other nuclear masses varies with "G" and hence with the magnitude or masses of stellar bodies. If this is true, then a "shift to the red" will be observed in spectroscopic observation of stellar galaxies containing masses greater than that of the sun, without implying the expansion of the universe at any such tremendous rates of recession as the 37,000 miles per second reported in some instances on the basis of spectroscopic observational data interpreted on the assumption that the "red shift" is due entirely to the doppler effect of recessional velocities.

A further prediction of this choice of assumptions is that the specific charge of the proton will vary on earth from 9552.9 e.m.u. at the equator to 9617.6 at the poles, with a "G Normal" value of 9578.4 e.m.u. the hydrogen/electron ratio w|ll vary from 1842.57 at the equator to 1830.18 at the poles, with a "G Normal" value of 1837.65, and a corresponding proton/electron ratio of 1836.65. The mass of the electron will vary from 9.0841 x 10-28 at the equator to 9.1455 x 10-28 at the poles, with a value of 9.1083 for "G Normal", 9.1079 for 45°, 9.1059 for 42° and 9.1013 for 37°. the electron charge e' will vary from 4.7933 x 10-10 e.s.u. at the equator to 4.8257 x 10-10 e.s.u. at the poles, with 4.8048 at 42° and 4.8024 x 10-10 at 37° latitude.

With this rather strong support to the indicated choice of alternatives, the rather disturbing conclusion is reached that if "k" is not a universal constant, then the true masses and densities of all the astronomical bodies except the earth are still unknown. But the "EMG" formula provides means of calculating them in terms of the specific electronic charge and the functions of their dynamic behavior in the solar field.

When the resulting densities for the various planets are plotted against the orbital velocities associated with their distances from the sun, the curve is nearly a straight line extending from the density of iron (just within the orbit of mercury) to the density of ice (just beyond the orbit of pluto). The mean density thus calculated for Mercury is 7.18; for Earth, 5.51 for Mars, 4.14; for the asteroids, from 2.5 to 3.5; for Eros 2.88; for Pluto, 1.15.

The "EMG" density table based on this alternative indicates that if the moon were not a captive of the Earth, it would be an intra-Mercurial planet, density 7.367. There is considerable evidence favoring this alternative, notably the anomalous behavior of the moon and mercury as the only two bodies in the solar system thus provided with a density close enough to that of iron to account for their failure to rotate with respect to their host, on the basis of magnetic polarization.

Employing in transpositions of the "EMG" formula the value for e/m determined by application to earth and mars, the balance of the report and its appendices consists of further validational as well as speculative applications to various astronomical problems. Among these is the problem of the asteroids and the problem of astronomical time.

Application of the "EMG" limiting equations to the variable asteroids indicates that the periodic fluctuations of reflected light must be due to satellitic occultation of asteroid pairs, rather than to surface variations of reflecting power of a single rotating mass. This and other implications of the "EMG" correlation suggest a thermal catastrophe rather than a "cold" collision for the genetic origin of the asteroids. This leads to considerations of the genetic problems of the solar system of planets as a whole.

The "EMG" limiting equations impose critical astronomical dimensions with respect to given concentrations of matter. The product of the mass and the square of the mean density (MD2) or the product of the volume and the cube of the mean density, cannot exceed (in c.g.s. units) a value of 1.9192 x 1030 -- (this critical value being entirely a function of "pi" and the velocity of light) -- without implying

(1) A cessation of axial rotation with respect to a host on the part of a satellite,

(2) removal to an "infinite" distance, or

(3) the reduction, to a negligible quantity, of the surface "G" by expansion which increases the volume but reduces the mean density and partly or wholly destroys the homogeneity of the total mass.

The giant "gaseous" planets appear to exemplify one of these alternative consequences of "exceeding the mass limits", and the "expanding universe", or at least the vast distances between stars, appears to exemplify another.

The general, though tentative, conclusion of the report is that while the "Quantum Theory of Correlativity" (with its solution to current problems of nuclear physics) does not appear in the astronomical validation of the "EMG" correlation between electromagnetism and gravitation, the success of the latter indicates that the former provides a logical foundation to the whole of physics. It suggests the possibility that the "law of gravity" as we know it on earth is not a "universal" law, but only a special condition pertaining to bodies within a narrow sphere of dimensional limits and reciprocal relationships. There is strong indication that the "universal" law is not gravitational but electromagnetic, and that the universal constant is not the gravitational "k", but the electromagnetic e/m, the specific electronic charge, which links the atom with the stars.

Because alternative interpretations of the same quantitative data are possible, there remains the question, raised by the validation of the "EMG" correlation, whether it means that "gravitation" is but another word for macrocosmic electromagnetism. Must astronomic bodies rotate or move in the field of other bodies in order to generate a force of attraction in electrostatic fields which would otherwise be repellent save within a critical distance of proximity? The available evidence tends to support this alternative. All that can be said, however, is that the "EMG" correlation thus validated may be one of identity, differing only in dimensions.

The validation of the correlation implicit in the "EMG" formula confirms premises which provide gravitation with a distinctive meaning at the nuclear level. Here it is not electromagnetic in nature, but correlated with it is the so-called "binding forces" of nuclear constituents. Here what we may rightly call "gravitation" is a universal constituent of all matter, and without it no matter could exist. But it is now quite evident that the laws which apply to nuclear constituents cannot be considered to apply to either the molecular or astronomic dimensions of inertial mass. And if what has been called "gravitation" astronomically consists but of the macrocosmic dimensions of what we know on earth as electrostatics and electromagnetism, then we are wasting time on attempts to correlate through unified fields in multidimensional manifolds a single identity that has been caused by man to masquerade semantically under three different names. Regardless of these problems of interpretation, however, the "EMG" formula contributes to the problem of astronomical timing a quantitative accounting for the perturbative elements of short-range as well as secular variations in the earth's rate of axial rotation. But if what has been correlated in the "EMG" formula as "electromagnetism" and "gravitation" on the nuclear level is on the astronomic level but a correlation between the electromagnetic functions of the atom and the electromagnetic functions of the astronomical mass -- then we shall be obliged to revise all our inherited notions concerning "gravitation" as applied to solar satellites and stars.

Educational Research Laboratories
Joseph Sadony,
Founder and Director

Valley of the Pines
February, 1954